It’s a disease that involves a group of conditions that gradually cause damage to the optic nerve and vision. People generally have no symptoms and there is no cure. Vision loss caused by glaucoma is irreversible
Glaucoma occurs because the drainage of the intraocular fluid is being affected, the aqueous humor accumulates and the intraocular pressure increases. This increased pressure causes damage to the optic nerve. Even today, doctors and researchers are not sure why the drainage channels stop working properly.
The optic nerve connects the retina to the brain, it contains millions of nerve fibers that send visual messages. If the pressure of the eye increases, the optic nerve is damaged, the nerve fibers die, resulting in loss of vision.
Symptoms can include
- Blurry vision
- Sudden loss of vision
- Severe pain in the eyes
- Halo light or bright lights
- Redness in the eyes
- Nausea and vomiting
If glaucoma is not detected in time, the eye worsens rapidly.
Different types of Glaucoma
- Open-angle glaucoma: it is the most common, it represents 95% of glaucomas. The trabecular meshwork looks good but there is not good fluid in the drain.
- Narrow-angle glaucoma: when the drainage spaces are very narrow, almost obstructed, intraocular fluid accumulates and the pressure increases.
- Normotensive glaucoma: The intraocular pressure is normal but there are failures in the drainage
- Childhood glaucoma: it occurs in children, in some cases it is congenital.
- Pigmentary glaucoma: accumulation of pigments in the iris that interfere with drainage.
- Secondary glaucoma: caused by a blow or trauma to the eye, prolonged use of corticosteroids.
Causes of Glaucoma
- Afro-descendant, Asian, Hispanic
- Family history of glaucoma
- Long-term use of ophthalmic corticosteroids
- Trauma or shock
- Old age (in some cases)
It is recommended that people with glaucoma visit the ophthalmologist every four months to examine their eyes, monitor intraocular pressure, and evaluate the optic nerve.
Although glaucoma has no cure, it can be treated and stabilized with ophthalmic medications. Glaucoma patients can lead a normal life if their condition is diagnosed early and treated properly.
- Glaucoma is controlled with the daily use of ophthalmic medications.
- With oral medications in some cases.
- In advanced cases surgical intervention is necessary.
Tips for Glaucoma Patients
- Lead an active lifestyle.
- Eat healthy.
- Avoid wearing contact lenses
- Drink less caffeine
- Do not smoke cigarettes
- Use the drops as your ophthalmologist tells you to.
- Visit your trusted ophthalmologist